APJIS Asia Pacific Journal of Information Systems

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The Journal for Information Professionals

Asia Pacific Journal of Information Systems (APJIS), a Scopus and ABDC indexed journal, is a
flagship journal of the information systems (IS) field in the Asia Pacific region.

ISSN 2288-5404 (Print) / ISSN 2288-6818 (Online)

Editor : Byounggu Choi / One-Ki (Daniel) Lee

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Past Issue

Date September 2014
Vol. No. Vol. 24 No. 3
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.14329/apjis.2014.24.3.255
Page 255~279
Title The Effects of Metaphors in the Interface of Smartphone Applications on Users Intention to Use
Author Wonjin Jung, Suk-Ki Hong
Keyword Smartphone, Application, Metaphor, Interface, Interaction
Abstract It is not too much to say that smartphones have become an essential part of our lives due to their versatility. Nevertheless, they still have less overall capabilities than their desktop counterparts. Specifically, they have small screens and low resolutions, which make their applications difficult to have a usable interface. To account for these limitations, the interface of smartphone applications should be designed carefully and properly. Good interface design to any application is critical. However, a comprehensive information systems (IS) liter-ature review found that there has been little research on the user interface design of smartphone applications. More specifically, there has been little empirical evidence and understanding about how metaphors, an imaginative way of describing objects and concepts, in the user interface of smartphone applications affect users intention to use the applications. Thereby, the research goals of this study are to examine 1) the effects of the metaphors in the user interface of smartphone applications on the interaction between users and applications and 2) the effects of mediating variables including the interaction between users and applications, users beliefs and attitudes, on users intention to use the applications.A survey was conducted to collect data. University students and practitioners participated in the survey. A 24-item questionnaire was developed on a 5-point Likert-type scale. The measurement items were mostly adapted from the previous studies in the IS literature and modified to fit the context of this study. First, a principal component factor analysis was performed to explore the inter-relationships among a set of variables. The analysis showed that most of the items loaded quite strongly on the six components. The analysis also revealed the six components with eigenvalues exceeding 1, explaining a total of 70.7 per cent of the variance. The reliabilities of the items were also checked. Most Cronbach alpha values were above 0.8, so the scales were considered reliable. In sum, the results of the analysis support the decision to retain the six factors for further investigation. Next, the structural model was analyzed with AMOS structural equation modeling. The values of GFI, AGFI, NFI, TLI, CFI, and RMSEA were checked. The values showed that the research model considerably have a good fit in general. Next, the convergent and discriminant validities of all constructs were examined. The values for the standardized regression weights and critical ration (CR) indicated sufficient convergent validity for all constructs. In addition, the square root of the average variance extracted (AVE) of each construct was compared with its correlations with all other constructs. The results supported discriminant validity for all constructs. In sum, the results of analysis demonstrated adequate convergent and discriminant validities for all constructs.Finally, path coefficients between the variables were examined. Methphor was found to have an impact on interaction (β = .457, p = .000). There were also significant effects of the interaction on perceived usefulness (β = .273, p = .000) and ease of use (β = .405, p = .000). User attitude was significantly influenced by these two beliefs, perceived usefulness (β = .386, p = .000) and ease of use (β = .347, p = .000) respectively. Further, the results of analysis found that users intention to use smartphone applications was significantly influenced by user attitude (β = .567, p = .000). Based upon the analyses, all hypotheses were supported. This study found that the metaphors used in the interface of smartphone applications affect not only the interaction between users and applications, but also users intention to use the applications through the mediating variables, perceived usefulness and ease of use. These findings imply that if the metaphors used in the user interface of application are easy enough to understand for smartphone users, then the application can be perceived useful and easy to use, which in turn make users to have an intention to use the application. In conclusion, this study contributed not only to validate and extend Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) partially, but also to develop the construct of metaphor in smartphone settings. However, since a single empirical study cannot be enough to validate the findings, some limitations should be considered.


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